...encourage and accept student autonomy and initiative.
...use raw data and primary sources, along with manipulative, interactive, and physical needs.
...use cognitive terminology such as "classify", "analyze", "predict", and "create" when framing tasks.
...allow student responses to drive lessons, shift instructional strategies, and alter content.
...inquire about students' understandings of concepts before sharing their own understandings of these concepts.
...encourage students to engage in dialogue, both with the teacher and with one another.
...encourage student inquiry by asking thoughtful, open-ended questions and encouraging students to ask questions of one another.
...seek elaboration of students' initial responses.
...engage students in experiences that might engender contradictions to their initial hypothesis and then encourage discussion.
...allow wait time after posing questions.
...provide time for students to construct relationships and create metaphors.
...nurture students' natural curiosity through frequent use of the learning cycle model.